United States Action
SUPPLIES, TOOLS, AND OPTIONS
|Emergency Kit Vendors (see below)||
Kit Supplies To Organize
Additional Information on Safe Room and Survival Kits
Nuk-Alert (Also Below)
|Emergency Power and Communications||Escape Hoods and Gas Masks||
Northeast Emergency Preparedness
Nuclear Blast and Fallout Shelters FAQ
A. EMERGENCY KIT VENDORS
Emergency Kit vendors have a variety of
products, which are subject to change.
Moreover, a number of them decide to merge, go into other businesses, etc.
So this page will provide references to some of these vendors and products, but note that this is subject to change.
Therefore the majority of this web page is focused on the items that you want to have in your kit.
Emergency Kit, Supply Vendors:
KI4U - provider of Potassium Iodide,
NukAlert, radiation survey meter, chemical detection strips
Amazon.com list of survival kit vendors and products - 139 products listed
Amazon.com list of emergency kit vendors and products - 48 products listed
QuakeKare - vendor of survival kits for home, office, school, car, pets. Vendor of emergency rations and supplies.
Vendor of antiterrorism kits including Potassium Iodide, duct tape, plastic sheeting, gas mask, protective suit, and gloves.
SurvivalKitsOnline.com - vendor of wide variety of survival kits of different sizes/price ranges for home, office, school, commuter, children, backpack, and "build-a-kit" individual supplies for enhancement of existing kits. 2 person backpack kit on Amazon.
IPrepare.com - vendor
of home survival kits, office survival kits, backpack kits, honeybucket kits
Mayday Industries - vendor of kits, emergency supplies and food, emergency pet food, backpack emergency kit on Amazon
Survival Equipment -
vendor of various
kits including commuter kit, supplies,
toilet kit, and
"Ready to Roll
PrepareTV.com - sells food reserves, 72 hour food kits, and water purification products
4 Star Military
Surplus - sells
military water purification tablets, other military surplus
Escape Hoods and Gas Masks: vendor Mine Safety Appliance (MSA) sells escape hoods and gas masks and vendor ApprovedGasMasks.com sells escape hoods and gas masks
B. EMERGENCY KIT SUPPLIES TO ORGANIZE
B-1. Standard Emergency
Desirable Items to have in an Emergency Kit
Lighting & Communication:
· Gas & Water Shut Off Wrench
B-2. NBC Emergency Kit Items
In NBC Emergency Kits, you are also looking to obtain items in the event of Nuclear/Biological/Chemical Attack, such as:
B.2.1. NukAlert to measure radioactivity -- also valuable to have a Civil Defense Survey Meter
Potassium Iodide is in event of
nuclear radiation to protect against thyroid cancer. Also available in
liquid version (scroll down the page
B.2.3. Plastic cloths are included to cover windows and vents in the event of a bioterror attack and "seal" the safe room to prevent any cracks to allow outside air or non safe room air to get into safe room.
M9 Chemical Detection Strip (scroll
down the page on link) -- see description further down on this web page.
B.2.5. ASAP Silver Solution—with natural antibiotic capabilities. A non-toxic supplement that may be helpful in a biological or radiation emergency. See additional description further down on this web page.
B.2.6. N95 Particulate Respirator Masks—these half-face, reusable, disposable masks are recommended to be worn during a nuclear or biological emergency to minimize ingesting radioactive particles or airborne biological disease pathogens through the mouth and nose.
Adjustable N95 Particulate Respirators provide a folding version of this,
and are more commonly called Positive Facial Lock (PFL) masks.
Also available in boxes of 210. See fitting instructions for PFL masks listed below.
1. Cell phone
2. Contact List: Names/Telephone Numbers
3. Maps of Area
4. Cash/Travelers Checks
5. Gallon of water per person per day.
Code Red Kit does provide Emergency Food Bars. These are survival-level food only. DHS also suggests the following be put in a kit, as appropriate to your circumstances, along with manual can opener and eating utensils (if needed)
6. Dry cereal or granola
7. Peanut butter
8. Dried fruit
9. Canned juices
10. Non-perishable pasteurized milk
11. High energy foods
13. Comfort/stress foods
15. “3 handkerchief rule”
16. Duct Tape in Car
17. BACKUP MEDICIATION
18. Extra Pair of Eyeglasses
19. Sterile dressings to stop bleeding
20. Antibiotic ointment to prevent infection (we do have antibiotic ointment packs)
21. Burn ointment to prevent infection.
22. Eye wash solution to flush the eyes or as general decontaminant.
24. Tube of petroleum jelly or other lubricant
25. Aspirin (we have Tylenol only)
26. Anti-diarrhea medication
27. Antacid (for upset stomach)
28. Syrup of Ipecac (use to induce vomiting if advised by the Poison Control Center)
30. Activated charcoal (use if advised by the Poison Control Center)
OTHER ITEMS – NOT SUGGESTED BY DHS
1. Grasp nosepiece at top of mask with one hand. Slide finger of other hand behind chin piece.
7. Face fit check. To check fit, place both hands along the edges of the respirator and exhale. If air escapes around your nose, adjust the nosepiece. If air leaks at the respirator edges, unfold or untwist the chin piece, repeat Steps 5 and 6.
· Introduced at The Health Physics Society Convention 1/03
· Compact Key Chain Attachable Radiation Monitor & Alarm
· Monitoring is “ON” 24/7 with long-life ten+ year battery
· Range encompasses the higher emergency radiation levels
· 10 distinct 'chirping' alarm levels - easily understood
· Patent-Pending 'State of the Art' Detector Technology
· Verified by independent National Radiological Laboratory
· Each NukAlert™ individually radiation accuracy tested
· Instruction manual with personal nuclear survival strategies
· 1 year warranty & Made in U.S.A.
Carried everywhere your keys go, with NukAlert's 24/7 constant monitoring, you'll always be promptly alerted to the unseen, but acutely dangerous, levels of radiation if/when present.
A benefit of the NukAlert™, not to be overlooked, is that it will also confirm when and where those higher levels of radiation are not present, too.
212 Oil Patch Lane
Gonzales, Texas 78629
SEE THE YELLOW MANUAL WITH THIS – HOWEVER – THE FOLLOWINS IS PROVIDED IN EVENT YOUR MANUAL IS LOST.
~ Operating Instructions ~
Your personal NukAlert™ Radiation Monitor & Alarm is designed to respond to gamma ray
and x-ray radiation fields and produce audible alarm chirp groups at specific time intervals.
The approximate radiation exposure is indicated by the number of chirps produced
in each group.
A benefit of the NukAlert™, not to be overlooked, is that it will also confirm when and
where dangerous levels of radiation are not present, too. With the anticipated general
public panic accompanying any future nuclear emergency it will be very reassuring to
know with confidence that, for your locale, your family is safe to continue going about
their daily routine.
The State of the Art, Patent-Pending, NukAlert™ sensor is composed of a Cadmium
Sulphide photocell exposed to light emitted by a radioluminescent rare earth phosphor
(scintillator). The sensor signal is sampled with every tick or alarm chirp group by a small
microprocessor. This rugged unit is completely sealed to prevent moisture or contaminants
from affecting the readings.
The accuracy, consistency and reliability of the NukAlert™ has been independently confirmed
by a nationally recognized radiological laboratory. Additionally, every unit is individually
tested with a NIST traceable Cesium-137 source to assure the highest quality
control before being released.
The NukAlert™ is always “ON” 24/7 continuously monitoring and sampling its immediate
environment. The long-life battery provides continuous monitoring for a minimum of ten
years with enough reserve to respond to a prolonged radiation emergency. Even at full
continuous alarming at the highest exposure range the battery will continue to provide
power and be alarming for at least a full month.
The monitor’s functioning can be confirmed by a faint ticking that can be heard each time
the microprocessor cycles through its sampling program. The rate of ticking varies with
temperature changes and radiation exposure but, by itself, changes in this ticking rate do
not necessarily indicate that any significant radiation is present. Two to five ticks per second,
with occasional skipped ticks, are typical. Double ticks repeated every eight seconds
will be observed as the unit approaches the first alarm threshold.
Exposure of the NukAlert™ to gamma or x-ray radiation of about 0.1 Roentgen per hour
(R/hr) is sufficient to trigger the initial single chirp alarm response. The unit will then
repeat this single chirp alarm about every 35 seconds. With each doubling of the radiation
exposure rate the number of chirps per alarm will increase by one. At about 0.2 R/hr
the unit will double chirp every 30 seconds. Around 0.4 R/hr it will chirp three times in a
row, repeating every 25 seconds, etc. At the highest level of 50+ R/hr the alarm will
change to an uninterrupted series of siren like sounds that become shorter and more frequent
if the exposure rate continues to increase.
Because the unit could be exposed to radiation that is
close to an adjacent threshold, but not enough to force an
increase or decrease in the number of chirps, it should be
considered accurate to within plus or minus one range. In
other words, if you were to have 4 chirps which would
indicate 0.8 R/hr, you should consider that the true radiation
exposure is accurate to between the two extremes
above and below it; 0.4 R/hr and 1.6 R/hr. It would be
prudent to always respond as if the higher exposure rate
The higher the radiation exposure the quicker the
NukAlert™ will respond and alarm. At the lowest levels it
will alarm within 3-5 minutes, mid-range 1-2 minutes and
at the highest ranges within seconds. After removal from
the radiation field it will quickly drop down to the next
lower range alarm and then more slowly reset back down
through all the ranges till silent once again.
The NukAlert™ is designed to operate between freezing
and 120 degrees F. However, exposure to temperatures
between -40 degrees F up to 185 degrees F will not cause
The NukAlert™ can also be tested by chilling it and forcing low-level alarm chirps for 10-
15 minutes when it’s then later exposed to a warmer environment. This temperature
induced 1 to 3 chirping level is normal as it achieves temperature equilibrium and does
not occur with gradual temperature increases. You can use this test to hear what the
alarm chirp sounds like by putting the unit in the freezer for a couple minutes and then
removing it and allowing it to warm up to room temperature. It’s also possible when the
unit is on a key chain and in your car dangling in front of one of the blowing air conditioner
vents that when you then exit the car and put your keys in your warmer pocket
you could get a few minutes of low-level chirps as it warms up. It will then cease chirping
when it again is at a temperature equilibrium with its warmer environment. This 1-3
chirping level, when moved from a much colder to warmer environment, should NOT be
mistaken for radiation exposure. Also, if ever unsure if it was a cold-to-hot temperature
induced chirping or radiation exposure, remember that it will be stopping soon if it was
simply temperature induced. (The unit may also produce isolated sporadic chirps when
exposed to extreme static electric fields produced by rubbing against synthetic fabrics in
a very dry environment.) For any concern during those couple minutes, remember, too,
that true radiation exposure at this lowest initial level of 0.1 R/hr is such that one would
have to be exposed to it continuously for close to a month and a half before any ill effects
might even begin to be noticeable. Remember, if the unit is alarming, because it is simply
warming up, it’ll be silent again in a few minutes.
Note: NEVER place the NukAlert™ in a microwave oven - microwaves are not nuclear
radiation - the unit will be destroyed and the 1 year warranty voided.
What the R/hr numbers mean…
Since nuclear radiation affects people, we must be able to measure its presence. We also
need to relate the amount of radiation received by the body to its physiological effects.
Two terms used to relate the amount of radiation received by the body are exposure and
dose. When you are exposed to radiation, your body absorbs a dose of radiation.
For radiation measurements the common measurement units and terms are...
Roentgen (Pronounced “Rent-gen”), rad and rem.
Fortunately, cutting through any confusion, for purposes of practical radiation protection
in humans, most experts agree (including FEMA Emergency Management Institute) for
gamma radiation and x-rays that Roentgen, rad and rem can all be considered roughly
equivalent. The exposure rates you'll usually see will be expressed simply in terms of
roentgen (R) or milliroentgen (mR). (More details on these different terms and their relationship
to exposure and dose are available at www.NukAlert.com.)
Your NukAlert™ is calibrated in Roentgens and exposure rates are expressed in R/hr. So,
if the NukAlert™ is alarming at the 6 chirp level (3.2 R/hr) and you stay there in that
same radiation field for a total of 1 hour, you will have accumulated a dose of 3.2 R.
The key thing to remember here is that “When you are exposed to radiation, your body
absorbs a dose of radiation.” And, that the radiation dose is cumulative! So, if you are
exposed to a radiation field of 3.2 R/hr, then that is your exposure rate and if you remain
there for ten hours you've just accumulated a radiation dose of 32 R (3.2 R/hr X 10
hours). This is essential to understanding the expected and potential radiation health
effects that any radiation detecting device might make you aware of.
What are the potential radiation dose health effects?
The response to radiation varies widely amongst people and the longer the time frame
over which a specific dose is accumulated the better your body can respond to, and
recover from, the radiation damage. In other words, a normally fatal (to 50% of a group
exposed to it) cumulative dose of 400 R, if received all within a week, would create few
noticeable ill health effects at all if it was received, spread out, over a year’s time at the
rate of about 7.7 R per week.
Compare the difference in acquiring a suntan gradually over a years time at a rate of halfan-
hour per day compared to packing that years worth of sun exposure (182 hours) all
into one solid non-stop week, 24 hours a day, night and day, for 7 days. The difference
in the ability of your body to recover from those two extremes, but both the same total
dose, is obviously very dramatic.
Here below is a general overview of the expected health effects assuming the cumulative
total radiation exposure was all received within a week’s time. Remember, too, promptly
removing yourself from the radiation source would have you no longer absorbing and
adding to that cumulative dose. And, that can make all the difference between absorbing
a dangerous radiation dose or getting only a tiny fraction you might not even be able
to later notice. (Note: Adult doses below, 1/2 for children).
TOTAL DOSE ONSET & DURATION OF INITIAL SYMPTOMS & DISPOSITION
30 to 70 R From 6-12 hours: none to slight incidence of transient headache and
nausea; vomiting in up to 5 percent of personnel in upper part of dose
range. Mild lymphocyte depression within 24 hours. Full recovery
expected. (Note: fetus damage possible from 50 R and above.)
70 to 150 R From 2-20 hours: transient mild nausea and vomiting in 5 to 30 percent
of personnel. Potential for delayed traumatic and surgical wound
healing, minimal clinical effect. Moderate drop in lymphocyte, platelet,
and granulocyte counts. Increased susceptibility to opportunistic
pathogens. Full recovery expected.
150 to 300 R From 2 hours to three days: transient to moderate nausea and vomiting
in 20 to 70 percent; mild to moderate fatigability and weakness
in 25 to 60 percent of personnel. At 3 to 5 weeks: medical care
required for 10 to 50%. At high end of range, death may occur to
maximum 10%. Anticipated medical problems include infection,
bleeding, and fever. Wounding or burns will geometrically increase
morbidity and mortality.
300 to 530 R From 2 hours to three days: transient to moderate nausea and vomiting
in 50 to 90 percent; mild to moderate fatigability in 50 to 90 percent
of personnel. At 2 to 5 weeks: medical care required for 10 to
80%. At low end of range, less than 10% deaths; at high end, death
may occur for more than 50%. Anticipated medical problems include
frequent diarrheal stools, anorexia, increased fluid loss, ulceration.
Increased infection susceptibility during immunocompromised timeframe.
Moderate to severe loss of lymphocytes. Hair loss after 14
530 to 830 R From 2 hours to two days: moderate to severe nausea and vomiting
in 80 to 100 percent of personnel; From 2 hours to six weeks: moderate
to severe fatigability and weakness in 90 to 100 percent of personnel.
At 10 days to 5 weeks: medical care required for 50 to 100%.
At low end of range, death may occur for more than 50% at six
weeks. At high end, death may occur for 99% of personnel.
Anticipated medical problems include developing pathogenic and
opportunistic infections, bleeding, fever, loss of appetite, GI ulcerations,
bloody diarrhea, severe fluid and electrolyte shifts, capillary
leak, hypotension. Combined with any significant physical trauma,
survival rates will approach zero.
830 R Plus From 30 minutes to 2 days: severe nausea, vomiting, fatigability,
weakness, dizziness, and disorientation; moderate to severe fluid
imbalance and headache. Bone marrow total depletion within days.
CNS symptoms are predominant at higher radiation levels. Few, if
any, survivors even with aggressive and immediate medical attention.
Reference: FM 3-7. NBC Field Handbook, 1994. FM 8-9. NATO Handbook on the Medical
Aspects of NBC Defensive Operations, 1996. FM 8-10-7. Health Services Support in a
Nuclear, Biological, and Chemical Environment, 1996.
Bottom Line: While the grim reality of the above health effects created by the higher
levels of radiation are at first overwhelming to grasp, we need to remember that simply
and promptly removing oneself from the radiation field will stop further accumulation of
dangerous radiation. The NukAlert™ chart has in its third column the exposure time
required to accumulate a total dose of 100 R for each of the ten levels of radiation intensities
it will alarm you to. At the lowest initial alarming threshold of 0.1 R/hr you would
have to stay exposed in that radiation field continuously for 41.6 days before you would
have even accumulated a dose of easily survivable 100 R. Even if you failed to remove
yourself from that area during that lengthy time, few ill effects would likely ever be
noticed by a healthy individual, as your body would naturally be able to repair any radiation
damage spread out over such a long time period. On the other end of the NukAlert™
range, for instance at the 9 chirp alarming level (25.6 R/hr), you would need to get out
of that higher intensity radiation field within a couple hours to assure staying beneath a
total accumulated radiation dose of 100 R.
Obviously, the key to surviving a future nuclear emergency is in both being immediately
alerted to the presence and intensity of any radiation in your local environment and then
promptly minimizing your continued cumulative exposure to it. Be assured that nuclear
survival can be confidently secured for your family with the proper knowledge, tools and
Note: Many today will argue that any radiation at all will cause ill effects and zero dose
accumulation is the only safe and healthy amount. Unfortunately, besides radiation
always being present and occurring naturally, for a future nuclear emergency we have to
be initially most concerned with recognizing and minimizing those temporarily excessive,
most harmful, higher levels where immediate survival is our first and primary focus.
However, after first successfully surviving that immediately life threatening radiation
emergency, late and delayed effects of radiation can occur following a wide range of
doses and dose rates. Delayed effects may appear months to years after irradiation and
include a wide variety of effects involving almost all tissues or organs. Some of the possible
delayed consequences of radiation injury are life shortening, carcinogenesis,
cataract formation, chronic radiodermatitis, decreased fertility, and genetic mutations.
Irradiation of almost any part of the body increases the probability of cancer. The type
formed depends on such factors as area irradiated, radiation dose, genetic predisposition,
and age. Irradiation may either increase the absolute incidence of cancer or accelerate
the time or onset of cancer appearance, or both. Risk analysis and comparison is very
difficult due to the high concern and controversy of radiation exposure. However, the
Committee on the Biological Effects of Ionizing Radiation (BEIR V), National Research
Council, estimated that the risk of dying of cancer for low-level exposure to radiation is
about 0.08% per rem.
Here below is the spectrum of published radiation limits from different sources as compiled
in The Medical NBC Battlebook, USACHPPM Tech Guide 244 (August 2002):
Dose Function Dose Function
500 LD 50/60 with supportive care 10 Protection of valuable prop; EPA
350 LD 50/60 without supportive care 5.0 Occupational annual limit; 10 CFR
300 Early erythema 5.0 Public organ dose limit; 10 CFR
200 Threshold for cataract 0.5 Average all X-ray procedures; NCRP
150 Emergency risk; STANAG 2083 0.5 Public, annual, infrequent; NCRP
100 Urgent action, accident; ICRP 63 0.30 Naturally occurring annual dose, US; NCRP
70 Moderate risk; STANAG 2083 0.10 Public, annual, continuous exposure; NCRP
50 Negligible risk; STANAG 2083 0.10 Public; 10 CFR
50 Emergency limit; ICRP 0.015 Annual Public limit for decontamination; EPA
25 Life Saving; EPA 0.001 Insignificant dose; NCRP
LD 50/60 above refers to Lethal Dose for 50% exposed to that dose within 60 days.
STANAG 2083 is the NATO Commanders Guide on Nuclear Radiation Exposure of Groups.
ICRP is International Commission on Radiological Protection.
EPA is Environmental Protection Agency.
10 CFR is from the Nuclear Regulatory Commission.
NCRP is the National Council on Radiation Protection and Measurements.
Bottom Line: Regardless of the controversy and debate surrounding acceptable limits of
radiation exposure, the guide to action in limiting ones radiation exposure, both in a
nuclear emergency and in everyday life, is always ALARA - As Low As Reasonably
Achievable. Below follows what to do when the alarm is real to best assure your future
radiation exposure stays ALARA.
~ Nuclear Response Survival Strategies ~
First, some critical background information.
Before your NukAlert™ would even alarm you may have an indication of an initial nuclear
detonation with its characteristic blinding bright flash. The first effects you may have to
deal with before radiation, depending on your proximity to it, are blast and thermal energy.
Promptly employing the old “Duck & Cover” strategy will save many from avoidable
flying debris injuries and also minimize thermal burns. Think tornado strength wind
destruction descending upon you as you quickly dive behind any solid object or into any
available depression. A 500 KT blast, 2.2 miles away, will be arriving about 8 seconds
after the detonation flash with about a 295 mph wind blast that’ll last about three seconds.
An even larger 1 MT blast, but 5 miles away, would arrive in about 20 seconds.
(More information on both these early effects of nuclear explosions and additional options
for protective actions at www.NukAlert.com.)
Regardless of the cause or proximity of a nuclear ‘event’, if your detector produces an
alarm due to exposure to radiation, you should note and write down the time and the
chirp rate as soon as possible. Then you should either use additional instrumentation to
better determine the radiation field and/or consult your radio or other news sources for
additional information. At the same time you should try to move out of the radiation field.
A lot will depend on why you are in a radiation field.
There will be a big difference between a terrorist attack with a dirty bomb or a small
nuclear weapon or multiple nuclear detonations in a nuclear war. A terrorist attack will
probably allow you to move out of the danger area more easily. The weapons used in a
nuclear war are another matter. However, both scenarios are survivable with the proper
knowledge and preparations. A lot will depend on your initial exposure, your pre-planning
for different potential nuclear emergency scenarios and what you first do after your
You may have to deal with both internal radiation contamination and exposure, where one
could inhale or ingest radioactive materials OR external radiation exposure, that generates
radiation much like an X-ray machine stuck in the “ON” position would create.
To minimize internal exposures much can be done by simply assuring your water and food
stays free from contamination by fallout particles and by employing a simple common
dust mask or damp cloth over your mouth and nose to reduce inhaling airborne radioactive
particles. While this will not guarantee full internal protection, it will go a very long
ways towards protecting the lungs from inhaling radioactive particles and should not be
Additionally, the internal uptake by the body of radioisotopes can be blocked in some
cases. For example, potassium iodide (KI) or iodate (KIO3) if given prior to or soon after
an intake of radioiodine, will reduce the uptake of radioiodine by the thyroid gland.
Similarly, orally administered Prussian Blue will reduce the absorption of cesium from the
gut and Alginate will reduce strontium absorption. (See www.NukAlert.com for more
There are three fundamental principles involved in the protection of people from the
effects of external radiation (basically gamma radiation). These are time, distance and
Protection of a person from harm by external radiation may be provided by, first, controlling
the time of exposure; secondly, by controlling the distance between the person
and the radiation source; and third, by placing a radiation absorbing material, i.e., some
shielding between the source of radiation and the person. The first of these, time, is
always involved. That is, time is used in conjunction with distance or shielding or both.
As a comparison, consider protection of your eyes while trying to obtain a tan from a sun
lamp. The ultra-violet rays that produce the tanning are harmful to the eyes. A small
amount can be tolerated but exceeding that amount will cause damage to your eyes. You
can protect your eyes by any one or a combination of three ways. First, you can protect
your eyes by limiting the amount of time you spend under the sun lamp. The less time
you look at the lamp, the less damage will be done to your eyes. Second, the greater the
distance you are from the sun lamp the less the intensity of the ultra-violet rays will be
on your eyes. Thus, by regulating the distance between you and the sun lamp, the source
of harmful rays, you are protecting your eyes. Third, you can shield your eyes by wearing
effective tanning goggles.
To better understand these three types of protection, let’s consider each separately. First,
time is very important. The dose received by a person exposed to radiation is the product
of the rate of exposure and the total time exposed. Thus if you are exposed to a radiation
field of 12.8 roentgens per hour (R/hr), the NukAlert™ eight chirp alarm level, for
2 hours, you will have received a radiation dose of approximately 25.6 R. That is very
straightforward. It is simply the rate times the time. Minimizing that time exposed will
minimize your total dose received.
Another time consideration is the fallout radiation intensity following a nuclear explosion.
Time is a major protection factor following a nuclear explosion. The fallout radiation
intensity “decays” or is diminished at a specific rate. The rate of decay is usually identified
as the radioactive half-life. Half-life is the time required for the activity of a particular
isotope to be reduced by one-half. The half-lives of the multitude of radioisotopes
produced in a nuclear detonation range from fractions of a second, to seconds, to minutes,
to hours, to years and to multiple years. The total radioactivity of the newly formed
fallout from a nuclear explosion decreases very rapidly at first because it contains many
radioisotopes with very short half-lives. The rate of decrease lessens as time goes by
because the short half-life materials have decayed and the remaining materials are
radioisotopes with longer half-lives.
There is a mathematical formula to describe the average decay of the fallout from a typical
nuclear weapon, but a generalized “rule-of-thumb” serves us better for emergency
field use. The rule-of-thumb is “for every seven fold increase in time after a nuclear detonation,
the radiation intensity (exposure rate) decreases by a factor of ten”. It is important
for you to know that as time increases the radiation intensity decreases. For example:
if the radiation level is measured to be 1,000 roentgens per hour (R/hr), one hour
after a nuclear detonation, then seven hours after the detonation the radiation intensity
will be 1,000/10 or only 100 R/hr. Additionally, for another 7 fold increase in time (7 x 7
hr = 49 hr) the radiation intensity will have reduced to only 10 R/hr. And, yet another
seven fold increase in time (7 hr x 7 x 7 or 49 hr x 7 = 343 hr or 14.3 days) the radiation
level would be reduced to 1 R/hr.
Civil Defense planning placed so much emphasis on fallout
shelters and why sheltering in the event of a nuclear disaster can be so important.
Sheltering allows you to take advantage of the natural factors of radioactive fallout decay
and allows you to wait out the danger, putting time on your side to provide you with protection.
Note that the above chart applies only to fission and fusion weapons and does not apply
to the so-called “Dirty Bomb” or RDD (Radiological Dispersal Device). The reason it does
not apply to an RDD is that they are expected to be made up of only a couple of the common
and more easily obtainable commercial isotopes (such as Cobalt-60 or Cesium-137)
that all have relatively long half-lives. Fortunately, though, they will likely not have contaminated
as extensive an area as a fission or fusion nuclear bomb and effective prompt
evacuation will likely be a more viable alternative.
The second item in your defense is distance. There is a relatively simple mathematical
relationship between the distance and intensity for a “point” source of radioactive material.
It is somewhat more complex for an extended or “plane” source where the radioactive
material is all around you. However, it is sufficient to note that the further you are
from radioactivity, the less your exposure will be.
For example: suppose you are standing by a large fluorescent light panel. Up close, the
light will appear to be very bright. However, as you move away from the light panel, the
brightness of the panel will appear to diminish. The same effect occurs when you move
away from a large, extended source of gamma radiation. As you move away from the
source of radiation, the intensity of the radiation that reaches you diminishes.
Now let’s consider the third method of protection, shielding. One of the ways that gamma
radiation damages living tissue is by knocking electrons from their orbits in the atoms
composing the tissue. This is called ionization. If ionization occurs to a sufficient number
of atoms in living tissue, without sufficient time for recovery, the result is radiation damage.
To prevent radiation damage we can stop a large portion of the gamma rays before
they reach the living tissue by placing a shield of some dense material, containing many
electrons, between the source of the gamma rays and our body. Just as body armor can
stop bullets, shielding can protect us from gamma rays and radiation damage. In general,
the denser the material used for a shield, the more electrons available to interact with
the gamma rays and act as absorbers.
So, considering the density of shielding material, lead is better than concrete, which is
better than dirt, which is better than water, which is better than wood. Any one of which
may be used to provide an effective shield against gamma radiation. To compare, the
“tenth-value” thickness, in inches, for concrete, 11; for earth, 16; for water, 24; for wood,
38. That means that where you have those thicknesses you’ll have only 1/10th as much
gamma radiation pass through with that barrier material. Plain dirt is free and plentiful
and just 3.6 inches of packed earth reduces the gamma radiation penetration by half
which means you have a Protection Factor (PF) of 2. With 18 inches you have a PF 32
and with 30 inches it’s over PF 300 and with 3 feet of earth you are at about 1000 PF
under it or 1/1000 the radiation on the topside! (More information on the shielding properties
of different materials and effective strategies for employing them are at
Considering the three protection methods of time, distance and shielding, when the alarm
sounds, there are two options that you have in order to assure your survival. You will
need to choose whether to seek shelter or evacuate. The following discussions will aid
you in making the choice that is best for you, your situation, and the nature of the particular
future nuclear emergency you may have to deal with.
Your initial concern should be, “Why did my NukAlert™ alarm?”
First, it is important to note the time of the alarm and approximate the radiation intensity
by the number of chirps from your alarm. It would be a good idea to write down the time
and number of chirps. That will allow you to determine your initial approximate exposure.
Immediately afterwards, you should try to determine if there is information available on
the radio or television. If you have access to additional radiation instrumentation, you
should also try to measure and confirm the radiation field in your immediate area. Then,
as quickly as possible, try to move to an area with less radiation intensity. This is important
because you want to keep your radiation exposure As Low As Reasonably Achievable
(ALARA). Ideally, in the event of a nuclear emergency, you would like to keep your acute
exposure (exposure received within a two week period) at 100 roentgens (R) or less.
That is because a person who has received 100 R or less of acute exposure has a 100%
probability of survival and will have little or no symptoms of radiation sickness. (Note that
even if your NukAlert™ monitor is in the highest continuous alarm mode, you probably
still have time to move to a lower radiation level before you have received a dangerous
dose.) The alarm rate indicates the radiation intensity in R per hour but may be just on
the verge of the next alarm level. So, if your alarm is giving 6 chirps in each sequence
that would indicate 3.2 R per hour. But, to be conservative, you should consider it to pos-
sibly be approaching the next higher level, which would be 6.4 R per hour. And it would
take over 15 hours before you would have a cumulative exposure of 100 roentgens. (6.4
R/hr X 15.6 hr = 99.84 R) However, during that time you should be doing things to
reduce your exposure to As Low As Reasonably Achievable (ALARA).
Now, should you evacuate or shelter?
Variables to be considered are whether a nuclear emergency has already commenced or
is only imminent. Also, the nature, quantity, and proximity of the nuclear threat; localized
nuclear terrorism or a possible escalation into an international nuclear exchange.
Quickly changing scenarios may even deteriorate to where evacuation becomes impossible
and last minute sheltering in-place is your only option. Or, you may even be forced
from an inadequate shelter situation into a rushed evacuation and refuge status. The following
table lists some of the factors that you should consider in making these important
decisions for future nuclear emergencies.
If you plan to evacuate, there is a very good checklist of what you need on page 33 of
“Nuclear War Survival Skills” by C. H. Kearny, author of the original Oak Ridge National
Laboratory edition and available free on-line at www.NukAlert.com. Embracing the motto:
“Be Prepared” could mean the difference between a thoughtful survival response or a
wasteful panicked reaction.
If you decide to shelter, you have several options with a little pre-planning. First, you
may explore if any buildings in your community have been identified as Civil Defense
Shelters. Less emphasis has been placed on these in the past few years. However, if you
look around and contact government agencies, before an emergency develops, you may
You live within 10 miles of a major target
and attack is imminent or an RDD ‘dirtybomb’
explosion has contaminated your
You have a vehicle with enough fuel and
are confident the roads you’ll need to use
will be open and clear to a lower risk area.
You and your family are in good health or
you have someone who can help take care
of those who need assistance.
You are not a person that is vital to your
local government, such as police, fireman,
medical, utility (water, elec., phone), etc.
You have shelter, tools, clothing, bedding,
food/water, and other preps to assure survival
at your evacuation destination.
You have pre-planned alternatives of what
to do if your family is not all together when
it is time to evacuate.
You live outside a high risk area, can build
or develop a fallout shelter and make other
essential family survival preparations.
You have no means of transportation or the
roads required will probably be impassable.
You are sick or are invalid or lack confidence
in challenging situations. (Basically,
you don’t need to be trying to survive on
the open road.)
You cannot leave the area suddenly without
You have not acquired supplies necessary
for immediate evacuation, nor pre-positioned
any at a safe evacuation destination.
You have no formal evacuation plans,
check lists or methods of communication
with family members when not together.
FAVORABLE FOR EVACUATION FAVORABLE FOR SHELTERING
find buildings marked with the signs identifying these shelters.
Additionally, you should become aware of other potential sheltering options in your area
and along regularly traveled routes. Tunnels, subways, caves, culverts, overpasses,
ravines and heavily constructed buildings. In the case of existing buildings, below ground
basements give the best protection. With minimum effort, windows and the overhead
floor can be sandbagged or covered with dirt to provide additional protection.
Likewise, the following illustration shows you how to make the “best use” of existing
buildings and how different locations may provide an acceptable radioactive fallout protection
factor (FPF) in an emergency. The important thing to remember is to put as much
mass and distance between you and the source of the radiation and then allow sufficient
time to pass for the radiation to die down to a tolerable level.
Page 4-7 ‘Radiation Safety in Shelters’ FEMA 1983
Your other choice is to provide your own shelter. Kearny’s book, “Nuclear War Survival
Skills,” again available free on-line, provides plans and instructions on how to do this at
home or at a remote location, even if caught out on the road.
Amongst expedient last-minute sheltering options at home you’ll learn how simply pushing
a heavy table or pool table into the corner of a below ground basement and piling
atop and around it any available mass (such as books, wood, bricks, sandbags or boxes
of anything heavy) is extremely effective when then crawling in under it. A basement
already provides a 10 to 50 PF (Protection Factor) and hunkering down under that table
of extra mass can add another 2-4 PF which would give you a total of 20 to 200 PF. That
means that if there was an initial 1,000 R/hr radiation intensity outside you would have
under that table only 5 – 50 R/hr. And, with every passing hour that fallout would be
decaying and quickly losing its energy to where 7 hours later, it would only be 1/10th of
that strength. As cramped as that might be, you would have achieved a Protection Factor,
in less than half an hour of moving some mass into place, that could clearly be the difference
between exposure to a lethal dose or survival for your family.
Think what you could accomplish if you started now, well before any nuclear emergency,
to explore your available options and built (or at least acquired the materials for) a mass
encased small fallout shelter in your own basement. Or, a combination tornado/fallout
shelter in the backyard. With 30” of earth covering alone you would achieve a PF of 300
and occupants would receive less than 1/300th of the gamma-ray dose of fallout radiation
that they would otherwise have received out in the open.
Also, there are commercially available “ready made” shelters. Links to more information
on both making a shelter inside your home or building or buying a “ready made” shelter
to have buried in your backyard or at your retreat/evacuation location are at
Now, a few words about what to do if you or someone with you develops the symptoms
of radiation sickness. The most important thing to remember is that the majority of
people who have received a dose of radiation sufficient to induce radiation sickness will
recover. That is assuming that they are prevented from becoming infected with common
illnesses because of their radiation induced lowered immune response. A person with
radiation sickness needs to be treated as any burn victim. You should provide fluids, easily
digestible food and keep them in a clean sanitary environment. If available, provide
antibiotics to fight infection. Additionally, give them moral support with the positive attitude
that they will be soon recovering.
In summary, you will survive, if you keep your exposure low (ALARA) and take care of
yourself and your loved ones. Dangerous levels of radiation from fission or fusion detonations
in most all areas affected will be of a very temporary nature, and actually quite
brief measured in only days or a week or two at the most. (For those small areas of longer
lasting ‘dirty bomb’ contaminations, prompt evacuation till clean-up is accomplished will
be your likely best protective action.) You will need to have become educated about radiation
dangers, secured provisions of food and clean water, and have continuing updated
information, either from the government via radio or from your own radiological instruments.
Prior to a future nuclear emergency, education and planning is essential for survival
and much additional and vital preparation information can be found for free at
“A prudent man foresees the difficulties ahead and prepares for them;
the simpleton goes blindly on and suffers the consequences.” - Proverbs 22:3
If any questions about your NUKALERT™ or its operation, don’t hesitate to contact:
KI4U, Inc., 212 Oil Patch Lane, Gonzales, Texas 78629, (830) 672-8734
MILITARY M9 CHEMICAL DETECTOR
(Grey area above on the 8.5" X 4" card is the chemical detector paper.)
The M9 Chemical Detector was developed for the U.S. military to enable soldiers to detect Nerve VX, Nerve G (Tabun, Sarin, Soman) and Mustard H gases in combat. It is in current use right now by our soldiers on the ground in the Middle East today. (Also, used by FEMA and First Responders, who we are now selling it to. Government agencies only should contact Shane Connor for M9 roll availability.)
"Chemical Agent Detector Paper, M9 is the most widely used method
of detecting liquid chemical agents."
M9 Chemical Detection is used by ground forces and is placed on personnel and equipment to identify the presence of liquid chemical agent aerosols. It contains a suspension of an agent sensitive red indicator dye in a paper matrix. It will detect and turn pink, red, reddish brown or red-purple when exposed to liquid nerve agents and blister agents, but it does not identify the specific agent, nor does it detect any biological agents, such as anthrax. This is current manufacture with an expiration date of December, 2006. More info and practical strategies for employing this chemical detection product here.
NERVE GAS is also known as Tabun GA, Sarin GB, Soman GD, CMPF, GP, VR-55, and VX. Nerve gas interferes with the transmission of messages in the nervous system of the body. This is the most widely used and stockpiled agent by both the United States and what use to be the Soviet Union. It cannot be smelled easily and is very lethal, although it can be used in harassing concentrations. It takes approximately 6 to 8 minutes to take effect and causes death by convulsions and suffocation. It can be designed to have a persistence time from 10 minutes to 112 days.
BLISTER GAS can be either an inhaled agent or a contact agent. It cannot be smelled easily and is usually used to harass rather than kill. The time it takes to affect an individual depends on many factors, but it causes severe skin blisters, completely destroys the skin tissue, and has a persistence time of 1 to 54 days. This form of injury is particularly ugly. Blister gas is a Soviet development, based on improvements in Mustard gas used extensively during World War I. Mustard gas was one type of blister gas used extensively in World War I and many veterans have proof by long-lasting scars.
Chemical Agent Detector Paper, M9 is the most widely used method of detecting liquid chemical agents. M9 Paper reacts to chemical agents by turning a red or reddish brown color. Place the M9 detector paper to opposite sides of the body. If you are right handed, place a strip of M9 paper around your right upper arm, left wrist, and right ankle. If you are left handed, place the M9 paper around your left upper arm, right wrist, and left ankle. It is also attached to large pieces of equipment (eg: conditioning systems, shelter or van entrances or vehicles). When attached to equipment, it must be placed in an area free from dirt, grease, and oil. This is especially important since petroleum products and DS2 also cause the paper to change color. M9 Paper is especially useful in detecting on-target attacks and keeping soldiers from entering contaminated areas. Whenever pink, red, reddish brown, or purple color appears on the paper, suspect the presence of chemical agents. As soon as M9 Paper indicates the presence of chemical agents, soldiers and units must take protective action to keep from becoming grossly contaminated. The results of the M9 paper should be confirmed with the M256 kit. Night operations present some problems when using M9 Paper. Color changes will not show up when a flashlight with a red filter is used to read the paper. White light must be used. This could cause some serious OPSEC problems, especially for frontline troops. Commanders must realize that there is a risk if they do not establish procedures for checking M9 Paper for color changes. Soldiers can be rotated into a white light area or the M9 Paper can be collected periodically for reading.
ASAP Colloidal Silver solution is an elemental silver mineral supplement that kills bacteria.
ASAP Solution® consists of very tiny (about 10 nanometers long) particles of pure elemental silver suspended in a solution of very pure water, sold in 8-ounce bottles with concentrations of 10 parts of silver for every million parts of water (stated as 10 parts per million or abbreviated as 10 ppm).
You can use ASAP Sporicidal Solution® anytime you would use ASAP Solution® plus ASAP Sporicidal Solution® should be used when a surface disinfectant is needed or when attempting to kill sporicial contamination (such as Anthrax). The cost difference between these two products will often dictate the use of ASAP Solution® in-lieu of ASAP Sporicial Solution®.
In in-vitro tests, ASAP Solution®, has been proven to have natural antibiotic-like effects on certain types of bacteria. As such, it is useful in the event of an unexpected, sudden exposure to a pathogen.
ASAP Solution® is a solution in pure water of very small (10 nanometer) particles of pure, elemental silver, versus the ionic silver as found in most colloidal silver solutions, according to Dr. Ron Leavitt, PhD.
The ASAP Solution® is not toxic to humans either when taken internally or when applied to the skin or eyes, according to the guidelines of the EPA as recorded in EPA 738-R-93-005. In testing done it rats where they were given the equivalent of a 200 pound man taking about 4 full 8-oz bottles of the 10 ppm solution, "there was no mortality or significant evidence of toxicity observed in the rats." In addition, unlike some other silver based products, the ASAP Solution® is not thought to be a risk for any permanent graying of the skin, also known as argyria, according to Dr. Leavitt. Argyria, although not a toxic effect, is obviously a very undesirable cosmetic effect. It can be caused when large amounts of silver are absorbed in the skin tissue and can give it a bluish, grey-blue, or even a black color in extreme instances.
In testing completed on 18 Dec 2001 by the IIT Research Institute (as reported by the manufacturer in an IITRI report faxed to the USDPI), a total of 33 conical tubes were filled with 4.95 ml of ASAP Solution® at 22 ppm and inoculated with 50 µl of B. anthracis (anthrax) spores resulting in about a 93% reduction of viable anthrax spores (in vitro) at both room and body temperature after 4 hours of exposure and about a 99% reduction of viable anthrax spores at body temperature after 6 hours. This testing appears to confirm that the ASAP Solution® can kill the "hardy" anthrax spores under certain conditions, but does not provide enough data to determine if it would be effective if used internally. It appears that the ASAP Solution® , if nothing else, might have value as a non-toxic surface disinfectant solution. It has the advantage of not being any more caustic than water and is reportedly non-toxic to humans with either internal or external use. Note however, that the ASAP Solution® is not intended to replace any FDA approved or physician recommended antibiotic treatment and is not intended to treat, cure or prevent any disease, like anthrax, at this time (until further testing can show if it is effective and at what dosing and administration and if subsequently approved by the FDA).
This product is generally considered safe for any individual (but as always, consult with your physician before taking any mineral supplement). While many have reported that while using the ASAP Solution® they have had dramatic improvements with problems such as food poisoning, mouth sores, sore throats, yeast infections, sinus infections, cuts and scratches, Lyme disease, pink eye, acne, burns, etc., these results have not been verified in FDA approved testing. Hence, the ASAP Solution® is not intended to replace any FDA approved or physician recommended treatment and is not intended to treat, cure or prevent any disease at this time (until further testing can show if it is effective and at what dosing and administration and if subsequently approved by the FDA). An interesting book called The New Silver Solution by Kenneth S. Friedman, Ph.D., provides information and testimonials on how people have reportedly used the new silver solution to help treat the problems described above.
highlights of Army biodefense training materials